Aikido Terminology

From The Martial Arts Encyclopedia

Provided By Dave Humm.


A

ai (合) meeting, harmony, unity, blending


aihanmi (合半身) basic relation between partners: both have same foot forward (left or right),


aihanmi katatedori (合半身片手取り)wrist grip, right on right or left on left, also called kosadori


aiki (合気)Meeting one's ki or energy with that of the partner


aikibatto (合気抜刀)sword drawing exercises, solo or paired


aikibudo (合気武道)budo based on the aiki principle, earlier name for aikido


aikido (合気道)-The way through the life energy to harmony/unity


aikidoka (合気道家) - An aikido practicioner


aikido toho (合気道刀法)Nishio sensei's iaido school


Aikijinja (合気神社)the aikido temple in Iwama


aikijo (合気杖)aikido jo-staff exercises


aikijujutsu (合気柔術)name on the Daito ryu Martial art, also called aikijujutsu


Aikikai (合気会)organization and "label" for Ueshiba's aikido


aikiken (合気剣)aikido sword exercises


aikinage (合気投げ)aiki-throw, throwing technique


aiki no michi (合気の道)aikido (michi=do)


aikiotoshi (合気落とし)aiki-drop, throwing technique


aikitaiso (合気体操)aikido warm-up exercises


aite (相手)partner in training


arigato (有難う)thanks


arigato gozaimasu (有難う御座います)thanks for something going on


arigato gozaimashita (有難う御座いました)thanks for something completed


ashi (足)leg, foot


ate (当て)hit, strike


atemi (当身)strike to the body


awase (合わせ)harmonizing/blending movement


ayumiashi (歩み足)alternating footwork, like natural walking.


B

batto (抜刀)To draw the sword. Can also be an abbreviation of sword drawing arts or technique.


bo (棒)A staff. A staff of any length can be referred to technically as a bo, but usually this term refers to the 6' rokushakubo.


bokken (木剣)wooden training sword


bokuto (木刀)See bokken


budo (武道) Martial ways/the Japanese Martial arts


budoka (武道家)A practicioner of budo


bugei (武芸)Martial crafts. An older term still used in some circles


bugeisha (武芸者) A practicioner or exponent of martial crafts


bujutsu (武術) Martial arts


bukiwaza (武器技)weapons techniques


C

choku (直) direct


chokusen (直線) Direct/Straight line


chokutsuki (直突き)direct strike with the jo, like a spear thrust.


chudan (中段)middle level, compare jodan and gedan


chudan no kamae (中段の構え)guard position with a weapon at belly height. Also known as Chudan gamae


chudan tsuki (中段突き)strike at belly/solar plexus, with weapon or empty hand


D

Daito ryu aikijujutsu (大東流合気柔術) The main influence in Ueshiba O'sensei's formulation of aikido.


dan (段)level, black belt grade in budo


deshi (弟)student


do (道)way, also michi


dogi (道着)training dress, also keikogi


dojo (道場)training hall


dojo cho (道場長)head of a training hall


domo arigato gozaimasu (どうも有難う御座います)Thank you so much, for something going on


domo arigato gozaimashita (どうも有難う御座いました)thank you so much, for something completed


dori (取り) Suffix version of tori. To take, grab or catch.


dosa (動作) Exercise


doshu (道主)way leader, head of a budo. Lit. Master of a way.


dozo (どうぞ)please/proceed/by all means


G

gassho (合掌) The meeting of hands in respect to the kamiza and to the anscestors in the art.


gasshuku (合宿)Training camp, lodging together


gedan (下段) Low level, compare jodan and chudan


gedan barai (下段払い)Low sweeping block


gedan no kamae (下段の構え) Low level posture


go (五)Five


gokyo (五教)Fifth teaching, pinning technique


gomen nasai (ごめんなさい)Excuse me /Sorry


gyaku (逆)Reverse, opposite


gyaku hanmi (逆半身) Left side hanmi and can also refer to two partners in hanmi on different sides.


gyakuhanmi katatedori (逆半身片手取り)Wrist grip, right on left or left on right,


gyaku tsuki (逆突き)Thrust punch with opposing arm and leg forward,


H

hachi (八) eight


hajime (始め) The verbal command to begin.


hakama (袴)traditional wide pants, used in aikido and other traditional budo.


hanmi (半身) half body


hanmi gamae (半身構え)angled guard position


hanza handachi (半座半立)sitting versus standing. A situation commonly found in Daito-ryu aikijujutsu, aikido and koryu bujutsu.


hantai (反対)opposed


happo (八方)eight directions,


hara (腹)stomach


harai/barai (払い)sweep away, parry


hasso gaeshi (八相返)jo-staff technique


hasso no kamae (八相の構え)guard with weapon at shoulder level


henka waza (変化技) Technique variations.


hidari (左) left (right: migi)


hiji (肘)elbow


hijidori (肘取り)grip on elbow


hijikime osae (肘極め押さえ)pinning technique, sometimes called rokkyo


hiki (引き) From the verb "hiku", to pull


hineri (捻り)Twist. From the verb "hineru".


hito e mi (一重身)making the body small, guard position, more triangular than hanmi


hiza (膝)knee


ho (法)method


ho (方)direction, side


hombu (本部)head quarters


Hombu dojo (本部道場)headquarters dojo


I

iaido (居合道)the art of drawing the Japanese sword


iaijutsu (居合術) older term for iai


iaito (居合刀)training sword, usually not sharpened


ichi (一)one


ichiban (一番)first, best


ikkyo (一教)first teaching, pinning technique


ikkyo undo (一教運動)exercise of the basic ikkyo movement


ipponken (一本拳)strike with one knuckle


irimi (入り身)in to the body, inwards


irimi nage (入り身投げ)entering throw, throwing technique


Iwama (岩間)the town in Ibarai prefecture, where Osensei had a dojo and a home.


Iwama ryu (岩間流)Saito Morihiro sensei's aikido style. Since Saito sensei's passing, his son, Saito Hitohiro formed the Shin Shin Aikishurenkai.


J

jiyu-geiko (自由稽古) free training or practice


jiyu waza (自由技)free technqiues


jo (杖)wooden polearm of roughly four feet in length.


jo awase (杖合わせ)jo exercises


jodan (上段)high level, compare chudan and gedan


jodan no kamae (上段の構え) High level posture, usually armed.


jodan tsuki (上段突き)thrust at head


jodori (杖取り)defense against jo-staff


jo-tai-jo (杖対杖)jo vs. jo


jo-tai-ken (杖対剣) jo vs. ken


ju (十)ten


ju (柔)soft, pliable, flexible, gentle


judo (柔道) the flexible way


jujigarami/jujinage (十字絡み・十字投げ)cross throw


jujutsu (柔術)the flexible/pliable art


junbi taiso (準備体操)warm-up exercises, also called aikitaiso


jun tsuki (順突き)strike with the same arm and leg forward, also called oitsuki, compare gyakutsuki


jutsu (術)technique/art


K

kaeshi/gaeshi (返し)return, turn, reverse


kaeshi tsuki (返し突き)reverse strike with jo-staff


kaeshi waza (返し技)counter techniques


kai (会)club, association


kaiten nage (回転投げ)rotation throw, throwing technique


kaiten osae (回転押さえ)rotation pinning technique


kakae dori (抱え取り)embrace or bear hug


kakari geiko (掛り稽古)attackers in line, one after the other


kakudo (角度)angle


kamae/gamae (構え)guard position/posture


kami (神) divinity/the gods


kamiza (神座)honorary place in a dojo,


kansetsu (関節)joint (on body)


Kashima Shinto-ryu (鹿島新当流)Koryu kenjutsu style that Ueshiba O'sensei and some of his uchideshi in Iwama trained in. Their names are historically recorded on the ryuha's eimeiroku (register).


kata (形)form, pre-decided movements


kata (肩)shoulder


kata dori (肩取り)shoulder grip


katadori menuchi (肩取り面打ち)shoulder grip followed by shomenuchi


katame waza (固め技)pinning techniques


katana (刀)the Japanese sword, also ken, to and tachi


katate (片手) Single handed


katate dori (片手取り)single handed wrist-grip


katate ryote dori (片手両手取り)grip with both hands, also called morotedori


keiko/geiko (稽古)training


keikogi (稽古着)training dress, also dogi


ken (剣)sword, also katana, to and tachi


kendo (剣道)Japanese modern sport focused fencing


ki (気)spirit, life energy


kiai (気合)gathered ki, usually used for shout in budo


kihon (気合)basics


kihon waza (基本)basic training


kikai tanden (気海丹田)the ocean of ki in the body's center


kime (決め)focusing


kimusubi (気結び)Tying one's ki to that of the partner


kinagare/ki no nagare (気の流れ)Ki flow.


kiri/giri (切り・斬り)Cut


kirikaeshi (切り返し)Returning cuts in kumitachi. Is also a training exercise in kendo & kenjutsu


kobudo (古武道)Older budo


kobujutsu (古武術) Older martial arts


kogeki (攻撃)attack


kogekiho (攻撃法)Attacking techniques


kokoro (心)Heart or mind, also pronounced shin


kokyu (呼吸)Breathing


kokyuho (呼吸法)Breathing exercise/breathing method


kokyu nage (呼吸投げ)Breath throw


kokyu ryoku (呼吸力)Breath power


koshi (腰)Hip


koshi nage (腰投げ)Hip throw


kote (小手)Wrist & forearm area


kote gaeshi (小手返し)Reversed wrist, throwing technique


kote hineri (小手捻り)Twisted wrist, sankyo


kote mawashi (小手廻し)Turned wrist, nikyo


ku/kyu (九)Nine


kubi (首)Neck


kubi shime (首絞め・首締め)Neck choke


kumi (組み)Group, set


kumijo (組杖)Jo-staff exercises, jo against jo


kumitachi (組太刀)Sword exercises, sword against sword


kumite (組手)Free sparring, not unlike judo randori.


kumi-uchi (組討)An older term for jujutsu. Some of the techniques in kumi-uchi are very similar to sumo.


kuzushi (崩し) To break balance


kyo (教) teaching


kyu (級)Grade before blackbelt


M

ma-ai (間合)harmonious, balanced distance between training partners


mae (前)front, forward, compare ushiro


mae geri (前蹴)straight kick


mae ukemi (前受身)forward fall


makiwara (巻藁)target for hitting practice in karatedo


maru (丸)circle


mawashi (回し)revolving, turning


mawashi geri (廻蹴り)roundhouse kick


mawate (回って)Vocal order to turn


me (目)eye


men (面) Head area


Me Tsubushi (目潰) To distract the uke by attacking the eyes.


michi (道)way, also do


migi (右)right (left: hidari)


misogi (禊)purification, cleansing


mochi (持ち)hold/grip, also called dori


mochigata (持ち方) Ways of grabbing


mokuso (黙想)meditation,clearing of the mind


morote dori (諸手取り)grip with both hands, also called katate ryotedori


mu (無)nothing, empty


mushin (無心)empty mind


mudansha (無段者)trainee without dan grade, compare yudansha


mune (胸)chest


mune dori (胸取り)collar grip by the chest


musubi (結び)tie together - connection


nagare (流れ)flow, streaming. Also nagashi


nage (投げ)throw, also used for the one doing the aikido technique, compare tori


N

nage waza (投げ技)throwing techniques


nana (七)seven, also pronounced shichi


ni (二)two


Nihon/Nippon (日本)Japan


nikyo (二教)second teaching, pinning technique


ninindori (二人取り)two attackers, also called futaridori , from the tasunindori exercises in Daito-ryu.


noto (納刀)resheathing of the sword into the scabbard


nukitsuke (抜き付け)drawing the sword, also called batto


O

obi (帯)belt


omote (表)front, surface


onegai shimasu (お願いします)please, asking for something


osae (押さえ)press down, pinning


osensei (翁先生)great teacher, in aikido Morihei Ueshiba


otagai ni rei (お互いに礼)bow to each others


otoshi (落とし)drop


oyo waza (応用)applied techniques, modified for efficiency


R

randori (乱捕り)


rei (礼)bow


reigi (礼儀)etiquette, also called reishiki (礼式) or reiho (礼法)


renshu (練習)training


renzoku (連続)continuous


renzoku uchikomi (連続打ち込み)jo-staff exercise


renzoku waza (連続技)consecutive techniques, a series of techniques


renraku waza (連絡技) Combination techniques


ritsurei (立礼)standing bow


rokkyo (六教)sixth teaching, pinning technique, see hijikime osae


roku (六)six


ryo (両)both


ryotedori (両手取り)gripping both wrists


ryu (流)school, also ryuha (流派)or ryugi (流儀)


S

sabaki (捌き) movement/handling


san (三)three


sankaku (三角)triangle


sankakudai (三角体)triangle shape, position of the feet in hanmi


sankyo (三教)third teaching, pinning technique


sannindori/sanningake (三人取り・三人掛け)three attackers


sanpo (三方)three directions


saya (鞘)scabbard


seiki (生気)life energy


seiza (正座)correct sitting, sit on knees


sen no sen (先の先) initiating at the same instant as an attack


sensei (先生)one who has gone before - usually applied to a person leading a class in aikido


sensen no sen (先々の先)initiating before the attack begins.


shi (四)four, also pronounced yon


shiai (試合)competition or match, meaning to literally meet and test. The older meaning was a lot more serious; (死合) to meet with death.


shichi (七)seven, also pronounced nana


shidoin (指導員)instructor, middle title for aikido teacher, 4-5 dan


shihan (師範) Literally means teacher. Japanese practicioners who reach rokudan are automatically titled Shihan.


shiho (四方)four directions


shihonage (四方投げ)four directions throw, throwing technique


shihogiri (四方切り) Cutting in four directions, one of the kihon taught in aikiken.


shikaku (四角)square


shikko (膝行)knee walking


shime (絞め)choke


shin (心)heart, will, mind, also pronounced kokoro


shinken (真剣) A live Japanese sword. Also refers to being serious in modern day Japanese.


shinken shobu (真剣勝負) A life or death match. Teachers in Japan sometimes refer to shinken


shobu keiko - Training as if your life depended upon it.


shinzen (神前) front of the gods, facing towards the kamiza.


shisei (姿勢)posture


shizentai (自然体)natural body posture


shodan (初段)first dan grade


shomen (正面)front of the head. Also, the front of the dojo where the kamiza is.


shomen ni rei (正面に礼)bow to head place of the dojo


shomenuchi (正面打ち)cut or blow to head


shoshinsha (初心者)beginner


shuto (手刀) sword hand


sode (袖)sleeve


sodedori (袖取り)sleeve grip


sodeguchidori (袖口取り)grip on the cuff of the sleeve


soto (外)outside, outer, compare uchi


soto deshi (外弟子)student who lives outside the dojo, compare uchideshi


soto kaiten (外回転)outer rotation, compare uchikaiten


soto uke (外受け)block from outside, compare uchiuke


suburi (素振り)basic exercises with sword or staff


suki (隙)opening or a weakness in one's technique or posture


sumi (隅)corner


sumikiri (隅きり)sharpness of body and mind


sumimasen (すみません) excuse me/sorry


sumo (相撲)traditional Japanese wrestling


sutemi waza (捨て身技) Sacrifice techniques where you give away your position to exploit your opponent's vulnerability


suwari waza (座り技)seated training, also called suwate. In jujutsu, usually referred to as Idori (居捕)


suwatte waza (座って技)seated training, also called suwariwaza


T

tachi (太刀)sword, also nihonto, ken and katana


tachi ai (立ち合い) training where both parties stand


tachidori (太刀取り) defense against sword. lit. "Sword taking"


tachi waza (立ち技)standing techniques


tai (体)body


taijutsu (体術)body techniques, unarmed techniques. Also another term used instead of jujutsu


tai no henko (体の変更)body turn, also called tai no tenkan


tai no tenkan (体の転換)body turn, also called tai no henko


tai sabaki (体捌き)body move, evasive movement in aikido


taiso (体操)exercises


takemusu (武産)improvised Martial art. The unification of mind, body and principle in aiki. "The spontaneous execution of limitless techniques".


takemusu aiki (武産合気)improvised Martial art through the principle of aiki


tameshigiri (試し斬り)cutting test with sword


tanden (丹田)body center, compare seika no itten


tanren (鍛錬)drilling to forge the spirit


tanto (短刀) Japanese style dagger


tantodori (短刀取り)defense against knife


tatami (畳)mat


te (手)hand


tegatana (手刀) sword hand. To use the hand to strike in sword-like movements.


tekubi (手首)wrist


tekubi osae (手首押さえ)pinned wrist, yonkyo


tenchi nage (天地投げ)heaven-earth throw, throwing technique


tenkan (転換)turn


tobikoshi (飛び腰)fall over hip, break fall


tori (取り・捕り)the one who takes, defender in aikido, also called nage and shite (Pronounced "Shtay" for you wiseguys out there!)


torifune (取り船)rowing exercise, also called funakogi undo


tsuba (鍔)sword guard


tsugiashi (次足)sliding step, back foot following and not passing front foot


tsuka (柄)sword hilt


tsuki (突き)to thrust with a weapon or empty hand


U

uchi (打ち)to strike or hit


uchi (外)inside, within, inner, compare soto


uchi deshi (内弟子)student living in the dojo, compare sotodeshi


uchi kaiten (内回転)inner rotation, compare sotokaiten


uchi gata (打ち方)striking methods


uchikomi (打ち込み)hitting repeatedly


uchi uke (内受け)block from inside, compare sotouke


ude (腕)arm


ude kime nage (腕極め投げ)arm lock throw


ude nobashi (腕延ばし)extended arm, gokyo


ude osae (腕押さえ)pinned arm, ikkyo


uke (受け)the one receiving, attacker in aikido


uke (受け)block, parry


ukemi (受身)falling


undo (運動)exercise


ura (裏)backside, inside, reverse side, compare omote


uraken (裏拳)backfist strike


ushiro (後ろ)behind, backwards, compare mae


ushiro kiriotoshi (後ろ切り落とし)rear cutting drop, throwing technique


ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身)backward fall


ushiro waza (後ろ技)techniques from behind


W

waka sensei (若先生)young teacher, used in aikido for successor of Doshu


wakarimasen (分かりません)I do not understand


waki (脇)side


waki gatame (脇固め) side armlock in jujutsu, similar to hiji shime


wakizashi (脇差)short sword, also called a kodachi (小太刀)


waza (技)technique, skill, training method


Y

yame (止め)verbal order to stop


yari (槍・鑓)spear


yoko (横)side, sideways, horizontal


yokomen (横面)side of the head


yokomenuchi (横面打ち)strike to the side of the head


yoko ukemi (横受身)side fall


yon (四)four, also pronounced shi, however is rarely used, since shi rhymes with the Japanese word for death (死)


yonkajo (四ヶ条)older term for yonkyo


yonkyo (四教)fourth teaching, pinning technique


yudansha (有段者)dan graded, compare mudansha


Z

za (座)seated, sit


zanshin (残心)remaining spirit, continued concentration. Awareness focused on the opponent after the execution of a technique.


zarei (座礼)sitting bow


zazen (座禅)sitting meditation, also called mokuso


zen (禅)a form of buddhism


zengo (前後) forward and back, front and rear


zori (草履)sandals